• Your life and health are your own responsibility.
• Your decisions to act (or not act) based on information or advice anyone provides you—including me—are your own responsibility.


AHS 2012 Bibliography – “What Is Hunger, and Why Are We Hungry?” – J. Stanton

Thanks to everyone who attended my presentation at the 2012 Ancestral Health Symposium, “What Is Hunger, and Why Are We Hungry?”
Update: The video is now available! Click here to watch it.

Meanwhile, here are the references for the facts I discussed, and the data sources for the graphs in my slides.

US Obesity Data

Centers for Disease Control (cdc.gov): Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Among Adults: United States, Trends 1960–1962 Through 2007–2008
Centers for Disease Control (cdc.gov): Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, Trends 1963-1965 Through 2007-2008
(Data aggregated from NHES and NHANES)

Food Away From Home and Fast Food Consumption Data

USDA Economic Research Service (www.ers.usda.gov): ERS Food Expenditure Series

Components of Hunger

Nutrition Bulletin Volume 34, Issue 2, pages 126–173, June 2009
Satiation, satiety and their effects on eating behaviour
B. Benelam

There are many Berridge papers on the subjects of hedonic impact (‘liking’) and incentive salience (‘wanting’). These are available as fulltext:

Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;9(1):65-73. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning.
Berridge KC, Robinson TE, Aldridge JW.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 20(1) 1-25, 1996.
Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking.
KC Berridge

Also see: Why Are We Hungry? Part II, Part VI, and Part VII

Satiation and Satiety

Gastroenterology. 2010 January; 138(1): 65–72.e1-2.
Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions
Athanasios Papathanasopoulos, M.D. and Michael Camilleri, M.D.

[Note that the studies whose only intervention was additional fiber resulted in zero or insignificant weight loss, whereas the studies that resulted in significant weight loss were compound interventions of which fiber was only one minor component.]

Cara B. Ebbeling, PhD; Kelly B. Sinclair, MS, RD; Mark A. Pereira, PhD; Erica Garcia-Lago, BA; Henry A. Feldman, PhD; David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD
Compensation for Energy Intake From Fast Food Among Overweight and Lean Adolescents
JAMA. 2004;291(23):2828-2833

Taste receptors in the gut

Physiol Behav. 2011 Nov 30;105(1):62-70. Epub 2011 Mar 2.
Nutrient sensing in the gut: interactions between chemosensory cells, visceral afferents and the secretion of satiation peptides.
Steinert RE, Beglinger C.

…and throughout the body

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012 Feb;19(1):19-25.
Peripheral chemosensing system for tastants and nutrients.
Iwatsuki K, Torii K.

Taste buds both produce and respond to satiety hormones

Results Probl Cell Differ. 2010;52:115-37.
Roles of hormones in taste signaling.
Shin YK, Egan JM.

Protein sensors in portal vein

Cell – 20 July 2012 (Vol. 150, Issue 2, pp. 377-388)
Mu-Opioid Receptors and Dietary Protein Stimulate a Gut-Brain Neural Circuitry Limiting Food Intake
Celine Duraffourd, Filipe De Vadder, Daisy Goncalves, Fabien Delaere, Armelle Penhoat, Bleuenn Brusset, Fabienne Rajas, Dominique Chassard, Adeline Duchampt, Anne Stefanutti, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Gilles Mithieux

Reward centers are stimulated by post-ingestive effects (= the satiety response)

PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24992. Epub 2011 Sep 27.
Intravascular food reward.
Oliveira-Maia AJ, Roberts CD, Walker QD, Luo B, Kuhn C, Simon SA, Nicolelis MA.

Neuron. 2008 Mar 27;57(6):930-41.
Food reward in the absence of taste receptor signaling.
de Araujo IE, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Sotnikova TD, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG, Nicolelis MA, Simon SA.

Front Syst Neurosci. 2012;6:5. Epub 2012 Mar 1.
The insular cortex controls food preferences independently of taste receptor signaling.
Oliveira-Maia AJ, de Araujo IE, Monteiro C, Workman V, Galhardo V, Nicolelis MA.

J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 9;30(23):8012-23.
Nutrient selection in the absence of taste receptor signaling.
Ren X, Ferreira JG, Zhou L, Shammah-Lagnado SJ, Yeckel CW, de Araujo IE.

Protein leverage

PLoS ONE 6(10): e25929 (2011). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025929
Testing Protein Leverage in Lean Humans: A Randomised Controlled Experimental Study.
Gosby AK, Conigrave AD, Lau NS, Iglesias MA, Hall RM, et al.

Appetite 59 (2012) 312–315
Testing the Protein Leverage Hypothesis in a free-living human population
Claudia Martinez-Cordero, Christopher W. Kuzawa, Deborah M. Sloboda, Joanna Stewart, Stephen J. Simpson, David Raubenheimer

Also see: Protein, Satiety, and Body Composition, Dr. Paul Jaminet

Associations of micronutrient deficiencies with obesity

Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2012 Mar;15(1):85-95.
[Micronutrient consumption and overweight: is there a relationship?]. [Article in Portuguese]
[In English via Google Translate]
Leão AL, dos Santos LC.

Nutr Rev. 2009 Oct;67(10):559-72.
Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity.
García OP, Long KZ, Rosado JL.

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 October; 56(5): 1105–1121.
Nutritional Deficiencies in Obesity and After Bariatric Surgery
Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD, MS

Minerva Chir. 2009 Jun;64(3):297-302.
Malnutrition in morbidly obese patients: fact or fiction?
Kaidar-Person O, Rosenthal RJ.

Controlled trials: Micronutrient supplementation reduces obesity and appetite, increases lean mass and satiety, etc.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jun;34(6):1070-7. Epub 2010 Feb 9.
Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women.
Li Y, Wang C, Zhu K, Feng RN, Sun CH.

Br J Nutr. 2008 May;99(5):1157-67. Epub 2007 Nov 1.
Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.
Major GC, Doucet E, Jacqmain M, St-Onge M, Bouchard C, Tremblay A.

Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar;101(5):659-63.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control.
Major GC, Alarie FP, Doré J, Tremblay A.

Controlled trial: Micronutrient supplementation dramatically reduces ad libitum sugar consumption

Am J Clin Nutr July 1976 vol. 29 no. 7 710-715
Potentially useful criteria for judging nutritional adequacy
Donald R. Davis and Roger J. Williams

Further Reading

This presentation is both based on, and an extension of, my ongoing article series “Why Are We Hungry?” The index is here.


I would like to thank the following people for contributing, knowingly or unknowingly, to my understanding of the science of hunger.

(The list is in alphabetical order and does not imply a ranking.)

Live in freedom, live in beauty.